Соединительная муфта для герметичной защиты кабеля

Соединительная муфта для герметичной защиты кабеля

Силовые кабельные линии должны быть герметичными, нельзя допускать нарушения изоляции. При этом слишком длинные провода запрещают создавать ГОСТы. При прокладке многокилометровых трасс нужно соединить отрезки проводов так, чтобы система оставалась недоступной для влаги, пыли, воздействия гуляющих токов и электромагнитных волн. В таком случае используют соединительную муфту для кабеля.

По способу применения различают два типа соединителей:

  • переходные муфты — используются непосредственно на линии для соединения отрезков проводов;
  • концевая муфта — для подключения к устройствам (распределительным щитам, трансформаторам и пр.). Использование концевой муфты обязательно, так как места входа кабеля в оборудование — одни из самых уязвимых частей системы.

Существует разновидность переходной муфты — стопорная. Её используют для предотвращения стекания пропитки бумажной изоляции при прокладке кабеля на сильных перепадах высот.

В разных условиях применяют разные типы соединительной продукции. Нужно уметь правильно выбирать изделия, исходя из параметров кабеля и конкретной ситуации.

Выбор муфт

При выборе исходят из параметров провода:

  • Количество и материал изготовления жил. Можно соединять и медные, и алюминиевые провода, используя для этого подходящие изделия. Как правило, муфтами скрепляют кабели до 4 жил. Соединение большего количество сердцевин возможно, но необходимо использовать дополнительное оборудование.
  • Площадь поперечного сечения.
  • Номинальное и максимальное напряжение. По этому показателю муфты делят на применимые в сетях напряжением до и более 1 кВ.
  • Материалы изготовления слоев изоляции, брони, экранировки.

Конструкция используемых соединительных элементов напрямую зависит от вида межфазной изоляции.

Для соединения высоковольтных проводов с напряжением 6–10 кВ подходят изделия из следующих материалов:

  1. Эпоксидная смола.
  2. Свинец.

Первые устойчивы к агрессивным веществам, могут использоваться в качестве переходных и стопорных элементов.

Свинцовые муфты соединительные предназначены для кабелей со свинцовой или алюминиевой экранировкой. Их выполняют в виде труб диаметром 60–110 мм и длиной 450–650 мм. После соединения жилы обрабатывают для изъятия влаги горячей массой марки МП-1. Затем создают новый слой изоляции путем намотки кабельной бумаги.

Основные правила монтажа

Монтаж муфты на кабель выполняется по следующему алгоритму:

  1. Разрезать и очистить от изоляции концы кабеля.
  2. Обработать жилы — очистить их от загрязнений с помощью мелкой наждачки. Не стоит переусердствовать, иначе потеряете площадь сечения.
  3. Ввести очищенные жилы в специальное отверстие и затянуть крепежные болты.

Для соединения многожильных проводов с большим количеством жил необходимо обжать зачищенные концы с помощью специального инструмента.

Асбестовые муфты состоят из двух половинок корпуса, в котором есть выемки под провода, специальное отверстие для заливки эпоксидной смолы. Кожух собирают прямо на кабеле, после чего заливают смолу и отвердитель. Это обеспечивает надежную защиту от внешних влияний, хорошую изоляцию. После установки такие соединители обматывают асбестом и закрывают в металлических кожухах.

Можно создать стопор из точечных алюминиевых или медных стержней, изолированных бакелизированной бумагой. Три связанных стопора устанавливают в стеклотекстолитовую или гетинаксовую перегородку с латунной обоймой, размещают посередине корпуса соединительной муфты.

Термоусаживаемые муфты для кабеля представляют собой трубки из термопластичного материала (вулканизированных полимеров). Они сжимаются при нагреве до 100–120°С, остаются в таком виде после остывания. Установка такого перехода очень проста: трубка надевается на кабель и обрабатывается строительным феном или горелкой. Срок эксплуатации созданного покрытия — 30 лет в плохих условиях.

Термоусаживаемая трубка не используется на взрывоопасных участках. В этих случаях применяют технологию холодной усадки. Резиновый соединитель подходящего диаметра, надетый на спиралевидный корд, устанавливают на провод. Спираль вытаскивается, и резина сжимается. Получается такое же герметичное соединение, как и в случае, когда используется термоусадочная муфта.

Технические требования

Муфта должна передавать электричество с минимальными потерями, так как соединяет непосредственно жилы кабеля. Поэтому есть ряд требований к изделию и процессу его подключения:

  • Площадь контакта жил должна быть немного больше или хотя бы равной площади их сечения. Иначе повышается сопротивление, как результат возникают потери тока, перегревы.
  • При обжиме необходимо развить достаточное усилие для плотного соединения проводов. При этом нельзя передавить проводник.
  • Изоляция муфты должна легко переносить рабочее и максимальное напряжение сети, обладать достаточным для защиты корпуса от пробоев сопротивлением, противостоять воздействию химически активных веществ, коррозионным процессам, гниению.

Не допускайте этих ошибок при монтаже

Существуют типичные ошибки, которые допускают неопытные электрики. Зная о них, можно создать надежное соединение.

  1. Несоблюдение расстояний в концевых муфтах. Необходимо следить за расстоянием между землей и фазой. Иначе случится пробой изоляции внутри щитка. В случае, когда невозможно выдержать нормы, используют специальные адаптеры.
  2. Перекрестная ориентация фаз без использования компенсирующих трубок. Нельзя накладывать друг на друга и нахлестывать провода, так как возникает сильное электрическое поле.
  3. Неправильная установка воронки. Защитная воронка концевой муфты должна выводить влагу, а не направлять её внутрь.
  4. Воздушные пустоты. Если внутри остается воздух, необходимо залить в полости герметик. В противном случае сократится срок службы кабеля, возможно разрушение его оболочки.
  5. Загрязнение поверхностей. При сборке муфты нужно использовать полиэтиленовые пленки и пакеты, очищать все поверхности. Грязь способствует разрушению оболочек.
  6. Неравномерность толщины манжеты. Дефект возникает при обработке манжет с толстыми стенками. Чтобы избежать его, нужно равномерно прогревать всю площадь. Правильно распределить тепло поможет согнутый металлический рефлектор.

Соединение кабелей с помощью муфт — работа для профессионалов. Неправильное выполнение этой задачи приведет к повреждению изоляции, как результат — потерям тока, КЗ, перегрузкам.

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